Problems with Inclusion in the Classroom

by Howard Gerber on November 1, 2018

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inclusion classroomMost people like to talk about the benefits of an inclusion classroom. Those are numerous, popular, and easy to list. But what about the problems with inclusive classrooms? It is almost as if it is taboo to even suggest there are problems with creating an inclusive classroom. However, as any mainstream or special education teacher can tell you, there are indeed problems.

Problems for Classroom Teachers

A classroom teacher is expected to select educational methodology to best suit each student. This is a challenging goal for one teacher who potentially has more than 30 students in each of five to seven classes. Most students can be grouped with other students whose educational needs are similar. This may reduce the planning required to two or three groups. If you add special needs students who have severe learning delays, developmental issues, or who speak little or no English, this task can feel almost insurmountable – especially if the inclusive classroom does not include a co-teacher.

Problems for Special Education Teachers

The biggest problem for special education teachers who have students in inclusive classrooms is being available to every student. For example, if an ESE teacher has 50 students who are distributed through 15 classes during any given period there is no way to assist every student every day. Students may have to be pulled out of class a few times a week for additional services, which also impacts the ability of the child and classroom teacher to maintain pace. If the ESE teacher rotates into different classes on different days, they are not able to get the full educational picture of the class and may not be there when the student needs them most.

Problems for Students

Special education and mainstream students both benefit from being in a classroom together. After all, work and life are not segregated by intelligence or ability. However, there are still some problems that need to be recognized. In a classroom of 30, with one or two special education students, it can be difficult for the classroom teacher to give the individual time and attention the students require and deserve. If the teacher is focusing on the special needs students, the students who need a more challenging environment may be overlooked because they are able to succeed with minimal assistance. While the students will likely succeed in the class, they may not feel challenged and may become bored and disinterested in the class. If the teacher tries to make the class more challenging for the mainstream students, the special education students may feel singled out when their IEP exceptions become more noticeable in areas such as presentations, projects, and homework requirements. Being in every class together may actually alienate the students more than if they were separated for specific classes.

As an ESE teacher, what do you find to be the biggest drawback of inclusive classrooms? Do you think the positives outweigh the negatives?


{ 27 comments… read them below or add one }

Kim 12.07.11 at 8:40 pm

It does seem like the problems we experience in inclusion classrooms are a dirty little secret in our profession. It is extremely difficult to meet everyone’s needs properly when all the needs are so incredibly varied. My biggest problem with teaching inclusion classes is when there are students who are emotionally disturbed or have other problems that are manifested regularly in the class. They cause so many disruptions that I feel it is completely unfair to those students who are willing and able to follow school and classroom procedures/expectations and learn what is being taught.
Some of the special ed students have “advocates” who insist on all kinds of extra steps that need to be taken, and all of those steps take time away from teaching the rest of the class! I sit in meetings with these advocates, and all I can think about is who is advocating for every other student in the class who is unable to learn because of this one particular student? The whole situation can often be detrimental to others, and as a teacher who truly wants to help every student, it is very frustrating to deal with every day.

Gene 12.09.11 at 12:56 am

I have taught high school science for almost 20 years. I have NEVER had a certified special education teacher with me in the classroom. I have over 150 students total, with 21 students who have IEPs. After nearly three months, I finally received an instructional assistant in some but not all of my class periods this school year. I do feel that without help from the special education teachers in my classroom, the time I must devote to the inclusion students significantly takes away from the time I can spend with other students. The students I have who are emotionally disturbed do cause major amount of disruptions during the class period. Sometimes as frequently as every few minutes. Instruction time is repeatedly interrupted. Today I finally had to ask a certified special education teacher on staff at our school to please come to my classroom very soon to observe the challenges I am having. I am trained in my content area, and I like most other high school teachers am not trained to fully meet the needs of these students by myself. I would very much appreciate some expertise from the special education department in my classroom.

Annie 04.11.12 at 9:15 am

Amen! I am a parent of public school students, and I am extremely frustrated. The “rights” of general ed children have been totally brushed aside in the name of inclusion – the latest and greatest fad in education. School is for learning – children should not be treated as pawns in a laboratory for social experimentation. Is it not reasonable to expect that each student obtain an education commensurate with his/her potential? (the spectrum from disabled to gifted.) Special ed teachers are trained to teach special needs children and will surely do a better job than non-trained, overwhelmed general education teachers. We are asking our teachers to do an IMPOSSIBLE task by managing these diverse classrooms and by the way, they are expected to turn out higher and higher tests scores each year. Inclusion is counterintuitive when it comes to educating kids. This is not rocket science. Where is common sense? Obviously teachers were not consulted when the “experts” in Congress made this the law of the land.

Christina Thompson 09.26.12 at 8:47 am

I have a special education son and he thrives in the inclusion classroom. On the other hand, he does not have behavioral problems. I believe the class benefits from his time in the class, but there are several other special education students in the class who are extremely disruptive. They are even at times dangerous to the other students around them. I am terribly upset about the situation and feel it is my responsibility to do something about the situation. I am just worried about hurting the education of my own son in the long run.

Randy Burkhaulter 02.19.14 at 11:32 am

Wow! Your child’s right brushed aside??? How is that? What about my child? Does he not deserve an education like your child. You all have the wrong idea, and have bought in on all the myths of inclusion, shame on you all and the writer for such a hateful and completely backward approach. And just like Christina said our children can be effected like your children can be. We don’t want the world, we just want our kids to be accepted and learn from your children. Well, not your children, children who have tolerant parents.

Denise 09.18.14 at 12:49 pm

Randy, I think you are misunderstanding the concerns of teachers and parents of non-disabled students. I am a Special Education teacher and have read this article and comments as well as several others on the topic. I don’t think that anyone wants to take away the rights of students with disabilities or prevent them from getting an education that is free and appropriate (as the language used in FAPE). It is my opinion and I believe others who’ve made the point here, that it is not always appropriate for a student with disabilities to be in the general education classroom. Now keep in mind (and I think we can all agree) that the needs of students with and without disabilities varies. So, what is appropriate for some may not be for others. I think many advocates of education for all just don’t believe the rights of non-disabled students should be less valued simply because they have fewer special needs. In other words, a student who’s instruction is more disrupted by a peer is at a disadvantage than one who is not in a class with a disruptive student. And this can be said whether the disruptor has a documented disability or not.

Missy 10.06.14 at 9:19 pm

Inclusion is a major concern! It is an injustice to everyone in the classroom. Too many individual needs, accommodations, behavior plans, and not enough staff or help to make sure everyone is getting the best education. Why not have small group resource rooms? If you cannot read on grade-level, imagine how frustrating it must be. Not every child needs to be in the general classroom! If this is what inclusion was intended to be, it is NOT working….

Nancy Maroney 10.14.14 at 11:06 am

I think that special education lawyers are ruining public education. There should be a law against frivolous lawsuits. Sometimes parents refuse to accept the results of the district’s evaluation. An independent evaluation often gets parents the outcome they desire. Often obscure measurements are used. If they refuse to accept an ED identification they can get a lawyer and the district defense is a referral to protective services which they are resistant to do. In addition the inclusion laws are fiercely protected by lawyers and state department consultants even when the child needs to be in a special education setting. Since that has disappeared in public school, that means an out of district placement is needed and at times rejected. The result is that schools put up with more outrageous behavior that they are not allowed to control or are ill equipped to control. Add to that impossible achievement goal attainment. This comes at a time when more emotional problems are emerging and school shootings are happening. Psychologists are not allowed to or are ill equipped to identify mood disorders or personality disorders. Research shows that unidentified mental illness leads to substance abuse which has become one of the greatest tragedies in America. It is time that the federal government addresses this and amends special education law. This is an issue that should be reviewed by Congress. It is that dangerous. A retired school psychologist.

Susan 11.21.14 at 9:53 pm

I teach in an inclusive classroom with a spec ed teacher, and I feel like it is totally unfair to every student in the room. Another big thing in education is group work. My high students are expected to babysit the spec ed students in their group or to do the work while the spec ed kids just write down what they are told. Most of my spec ed students are capable of so much more, but the spec ed teacher doesn’t want to push them. She is convinced that group work and graphic organizers will magically make them learn. She won’t even make them write if they don’t want to! It is a disaster and is very frustrating for me. And the worst part is that since she is the expert with spec ed, my concerns are considered irrelevant. Every special ed teacher I’ve worked with shows up to class late, leaves whenever they want, sits in the back and plays on their phones while I teach, and wants all lessons watered down to nothing.
I also have some behavioral issues in my class. I do not think that I should have to be concerned about a kid as big as me having an angry outburst in my classroom. I understand that special kids have rights, but so do I and so do my other students. No child (or teacher) should have to feel nervous or uncomfortable in a class.
My youngest daughter, kindergarten, is ADHD and ODD and will likely be referred for spec ed eventually based on her struggles to focus and learn this year. However, there is no way I want her to be put in spec ed where her behavior will be excused, she will be taught to let her people do her work, and will have no personal accountability. I love her too much to send her down such a damaging path.

CGC 02.12.15 at 2:13 am

I would be willing to bet that none of those lawyers’ children participate in Inclusion Classrooms with a high degree of disruptions. This is where the American Legal System breaks down. We have politicians who are not of the working class governing the working class majority and now lawyers making laws and defending laws they don’t even participate in. Doh!

Jane 03.22.15 at 10:37 am

I teach in high school inclusive classrooms. I particularly take aim with Susan’s comment. As a college graduate (with a master’s degree), I know the content.The teachers do not want to share planning or teaching responsibilities, rather they want me to show up, maintain order (some of them-some like chaos), be the cell phone policewoman, and then magically help all IEP students complete their work in the 15 minutes allotted at the end of class. Sometimes I have to leave the room during lecture (“to use the bathroom”), so I don’t nod off.
I like all the teachers I work with personally, but they refer to me as their para and order me around, and then expect to me to cheerfully exude professionalism. If I had known this was what special education was, I wouldn’t have gone down this path. I thought I would be a teacher, crazy me.

allyson 04.22.15 at 9:29 am

1st let me say that all parents have the right and responsibility to fight for what’s best for their kids. You wouldn’t be on this site, reading the messages if you didn’t care. My son is not ld. He does well in school and has always enjoyed it. Until last year in 3rd grade. He found himself one of 27 kids in a class where over half the kids had some form of ld. Three of the kids came to school with their own assistants each day. Then we had the teacher and the co-teacher who was there to facilitate the learning of the ld kids. The second day at school ended up with my son a crying mess when one boy wiped “boogers” on my sons face and another child had a screaming episode. I figured out what inclusion was, and tried to give my son a pep talk about how he was placed in the class because the school knew him to be a good kid and that he seemed to make friends easily. He was a trooper…at 1st. The teacher put one gen ed kid at each table and had them help the lp kids. This was a big job that left much of my sons work unfinished each day. Later came the reports about how loud the class was at all times with so many adults talking and whispering to the kids. He couldn’t concentrate and asked if he could just take tests in the hall….later he just wanted to stay in the hall the whole day. The “booger” kid kept at it all year…eventually this led to a fight. The teacher did add in my sons file that he really had told the child over 20 times over the last many months to stop. Now we have this on my sons record. Don’t get me wrong, I was furious with my son.
Cut to this year, I wrote a long note to the school that I didn’t think my son could go through all that again this year. I pointed out that he had never gotten into any trouble before and that his grades had suffered. I asked that he not be placed in an inclusion class. I was told that he was not…now…I find out that he still is! The good news was that the class was made up of pretty good kids with ld instead of social disabilities. There is only one extra adult in the room. My son was pretty happy…the class just moved so slowly as they waited for the co-teacher to catch her kids up. Now a new student with severe anger issues has been added. The boy can’t do any of the classwork and is angry at the world.
The public schools have get to start getting this stuff right! It must be a funding issue. I can’t see any other reason why this is going so wrong. Wrong for kids that need more help and wrong for those that don’t. I am going to sound like the worst person ever..but my son is now behind his piers who were in gen ed classes the last two years….. we are done. The school seems to have no control over which kids are ready for inclusion. There is a huge difference in a child that just needs a little help and one with no self control and social outbursts. The child with those issues would be much better served being in an inclusion class with fewer children and a more calm environment. The class sizes are not adjusted to control noise and assistants constant chatter. The school will not, or can not honor gen ed’s a parents request to not be in an inclusion class. The poorly run inclusion concept has us looking at private schools.

Pat Orange 09.05.15 at 12:46 am

I am a high school Business and Information Technology teacher. Last year, 3 low-functioning SPED students were placed in my Computer Applications class with an Aide. All 3 were on a 2nd grade level mentally. Believe me, I read not only their Present Level of Performance but also went into the “Big File Room” where the enormous past records are stored.
It stated in one student’s PLOP that she ‘sometimes had to be reminded to wipe herself after going to the bathroom.”
It was EXPECTED that I ‘modify’ the curriculum for them. . . .Oh, of course, with ‘help’ from the Caseload Managers (Special Ed. teachers) HA. They don’t even KNOW what is taught in the class. Students in this class learn all 4 Microsoft Office products and sit for certification exams.
“Expert” Advice given to me: Well, let them do a little of the Typing Tutor and then a little Powerpoint, and then a little Word.

These students could not take a ‘thought’ from their head and transfer it to their fingers to key it in. They could only key (very slowly) words that had been written by the paraprofessional.
“Dirty Little Secret” from above REALLY hit home with me because a regular education teacher can’t even TALK honestly with Special Ed. Teachers! Each time I say something very valid concerning problems with including these students in my class and the fact that I have NEVER taught elementary education and ‘modifying’ this curriculum was really me ‘writing’ a curriculum for them, I am met with the ‘deer in the headlights’ look and wrinkled brow that says, “Noooo, you’re just modifying it,” as if I am an idiot for pointing out that “The Emperor Has No Clothes.” They are the ones who ‘choose’ to to give standard, irrational, illogical ‘semi-suggestions’ for modification. I am expected to sincerely ACT like they are supporting me when they are not.
I have been at this school for 15 years with an excellent reputation for teaching successfully to my students. Last year when ‘they’ decided to “INCLUDE” these 3 students and I responded with logical and possible obstacles (which occurred), I ended up being put on a Performance Improvement Plan.
I REALLY wish one of the administrators or Special Education Department members had ‘shared this dirty little secret,’ and I would have played the game.
Stupidly, I was advocating for what would be most beneficial for THESE STUDENTS! I have learned the hard way that truth, honesty, and fairness to all is no longer valued.

Reena Parikh 11.04.15 at 10:36 am

I have a son in inclusion class. His education affects because of special education kids. I don’t know how teacher feels but most of their time goes in calming sp.ed. kids. One thing I don’t understand is sp.ed kids have different requirements from learning, emotional, behavioral. my concernd is emotional and learning. they need to be heard , they need to be treated with care and be nice all the time where as there are other general ed kids need to be straighten out strictly and while doing that emotions get hurt. There are couple of kids can not handle music at all. they find it is a big noise and their brain hurting with it. Now why would you send them in a music class when they are getting so bothered with it at the same time why general ed kids should stop from learning music. There should not be inclusion class as it is not right or beneficial for either set of kids.

Terri Smith 11.03.16 at 6:18 pm

Inclusion is a bad idea. It is not a safe environment. It is not fair to the ESE students or to the standard student. Teachers are not able to give the students all of their accomodations. There are no support systems in place to help the teachers.

maphie 11.07.16 at 8:04 am

Yes, if you want to be popular you will stand for inclusion but if your real a helper teacher, you will suggest for exclusion of learners with disabilities from general classrooms! Inclusion has lost many hopes of both learner with and without disabilities. It is true that, teacher cannot offer the maximum help at a time to people with different needs and capacities; the only way to help both teachers and students is classification of students according to their beings

maren gucha 03.16.17 at 4:33 pm

what are they problems that inclusive students get in physical education class.

ESE teacher 11.15.17 at 4:42 pm

As an ESE teacher I find that Terri Smith has posted just shows that many people do not have one clue what true Inclusion in tails. It is absolutely fair and it is the best environment for students. This article is not research based and uses to many if when it should be using facts supported by data. True inclusion does not include those with severe learning disabilities who are basically functional and need a one on one handler for learning disabilities. Inclusion is not placing a child with a disability in a General Education classroom with no support. My suggestion is truly looking at the years of research from a number of world renowned educators before saying such a statement. Teachers who can teach can teach any one and those who can’t teach complain. I have taught ESE for well over a decade and have been extremely successful. I suggest you read Widening the Circle the Power of the Inclusive Classroom because the numbers don’t lie. Students with disabilities can learn in the General Education setting when given the proper support and having teachers who know how to teacher to a diverse group of learners. Public Schools are failing because many teachers simply can’t teach. The post by others on here just shows the problem is not inclusion, but the school systems their children are in not running Inclusion the way it is supposed to be run making the problem more of an administration issue than an inclusion issue. Its about alternative teaching and not segregation because that is what a Self-Contained ESE classroom is because it segregates kids with disabilities from their peers.

Ms. 12.29.17 at 12:31 pm

I’m the 4th grade general education teacher in an integrated co-teaching model, but my issue is a bit different. While most of my 14 SPED students are significantly below grade level, they are hard working and well behaved. However, they are often highly inattentive, and easily distracted by the slightest thing.Hence my problem.

My principal figured that since two adults would be in the classroom, it would make sense to put most of the behaviorally challenged students in with the IEP
students. The non IEP students are the most disruptive energy drainers in the classroom. She also decided the many of the low performers in the room too. The SPEDS students are losing out. This is not benefiting anyone.

Ashley 01.02.18 at 12:07 am

I think it’s best to split up the sped kids into different classes for inclusion. Divide and conquer!! They are all lumped into one math class and it’s a disaster due to poor behavior and learning issues- if I don’t get more support from the admin, then I will leave. And they aren’t making progress. Seems like no one cares but me, the special ed teacher.

Khloe 01.16.18 at 8:40 pm

Here’s another consideration: the support staff at my school are only paid $12 an hour. To pay someone, barely above minimum wage, to do a job that is SO important and DIFFICULT, is ridiculous. Most of the support staff consists of young people right out of college trying to get work experience and a foot in the door–they’re inexperienced and untrained, they’re not special education teachers. We need to throw more money at special ed if we want this model to succeed. We need MORE support staff and more highly qualified ones. Also consider that in a high school, kids are learning specialized skills and subjects: algebra II, classic literature, foreign language, bio-technology. A lot of us would be hard-pressed to thrive in these sort of classes, and now we’re going to put kids in there who are cognitively impaired, many grades below reading level, and suffering from social-emotional disabilities, with overworked teachers and poorly trained, poorly paid paraprofessionals, who not only are lacking the SPED background, but also the content knowledge necessary to teach a disabled student geometry. It just doesn’t make sense.

Lady Ruth Smith 06.24.18 at 4:18 am

I have taught high school science for almost 35 years as well. I have NEVER had a certified special education teacher with me in the classroom. Yes, if you want to be popular you will stand for inclusion but if your really a helper teacher.

Kimberly Perren 09.26.18 at 8:51 pm

My son has had an IEP since pre-school. He stayed back in 3rd grade and also finally got his IEP in third grade however, nothing has changed. He was diagnosed with learning disability and ADHD but the school has him in an inclusive classroom with mainstream students. My child Is not learning at all, he’s not on grade level and does not ask for help. He becomes too nervous to ask for help and will become disruptive by fooling around. He tells us that he’s scared because other kids are able to follow along and get their work done and he’s clueless and feels if he asks for help they will make fun of him. Within the first 2 weeks of school I have gotten phone calls from every single one of his teachers. This is not rare, it happens every year. He goes all year long with F’s and not learning however, because of his IEP they continue to move him forward. I have requested to take him out the Inclusive classroom and put him in a special ed classroom however I’m being told his “disabilities” are not severe enough to be in a constrained classroom. So how is my child supposed to learn if this is not working for him?!?! Every single year his teachers are sick of him and we’re punishing him for not doing work that HE CANNOT DO. Why don’t I have a choice in this.

Kim Perren 09.26.18 at 8:55 pm

This is the same issue I have with my son. They claim that he’s pulled out of class once or twice a week for an hour for “tutor” or there’s supposed to be an AID in his class however, he doesn’t utilize this help. He refuses to ask for help and when he is helped he still doesn’t get it. Probably because he’s testing on a 3rd grade level in 7th grade classes!! What can I do about this, I feel it’s absurd my child is not on the same learning page as the rest of these kids.

Theodora 11.24.18 at 12:15 am

Teachers who tell the truth about problems with inclusion are treated like unfeeling people. It is very difficult to teach when a child starts screaming just as your getting to the heart of a lesson or when children try to ask questions. I had one student who had an obsession about spinning on the floor. It was a bit distracting. Some aides can handle things, as some don’t try. I know that socialization benefits all students, but in certain severe cases, it isn’t fair to the rest of the class. I was a General Music teacher and taught first through sixth grade. We did much more than sing little ditties. I had students with pretty severe problems in many classes. There were some real success stories with my Asperger’s students, but overall, I became rather discouraged and sometimes dreamed certain classes. I think there needs to be a better balance. All students need to learn compassion, but difficult students need to leave the classroom with their side when behavior becomes severe.

Theodora 11.24.18 at 12:20 am

This site needs an edit button!

Candice O 11.28.18 at 11:50 pm

Some of these comments are so disheartening. I am a parent/educator of son with some delays, I see both sides. I see teachers who are working hard to meet the needs of every child, then I see teachers who complain about everything regarding students in Special Education, however, even without these students in their class, they are still incapable of teaching. Also, All teachers should be required to get training for working with students with special needs. Please use people first language! If you cannot handle your class, maybe teaching is not for you. By the way, Special Education teachers are not aides, they are certified teachers, treat them with respect.


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